Robotics Lab's Videos

Elastic Control Model of a Chilopoda Bio-Extremity

This work presents an interpretation model of the compliant biomechanics of a centipede's limb to design bioinspired robotics in terms of walking locomotion capability. An abstracted anatomy of the chilopodo insect leg is presented. The dynamics of the musculoskeletal structure and an analysis of the relative proportions of inner leg segment are disclosed. The muscle structure dynamics of the insect legs has been modeled and validated through simulation of motion. The kinematic, dynamic and mechanical synthesis models of the complex network of passive muscles were developed, showing the compliance of the proposed limbs structure system to soften foot impact on touchdown. In addition, the critically damped elastic behavior was used to model the muscles oscillations to produce natural pressure of the legs during swing phase.

Swimming Oscillation Control of an Unmanned Underwater Vehicle with Articulated Fins

This video shows simulations results on trajectory control of an unmanned underwater vehicle comprised of articulated fins. The type of swimming oscillations are asynchronous flappings. The proposed fin model is bioinspired on the primate's limbs, essentially to resemble their physical strength, considering in this case, the kinematic morphology. The deduced controller is a time-variant linearized model that approximate the Cartesian trajectory's points through numerical successive approximations. For each fin reaching a point while traveling to a previous point, the metric errors decrease recursively. In this video, the simulations were developed with very low resolution trajectories in number of points for all swimming styles to illustrate the approach.

Robotic Sowing Tasks with Spiral-Type Trajectory Variable Structure Control

The purpose of this research is to model and control an underactuated robotic platform using a trajectory controller for sowing tasks in circular-type agriculture fields. This video shows the equations that model the mechanisms, the end-effectors and the path following functions of the robot, and validation is provided by computer simulations. Moreover, the spiral-type motion planning is controlled by variable structure control (sliding mode control).

Full Body Exoskeleton Design: Joint Mobility Analysis

This video focuses on the study of the main joints of a full body exoskeleton. This simulation illustrates the joints' movements and dynamics. A control model was obtained to control the limbs' 3D trajectories, considering both kinematics and dynamics validated through simulations.

Dynamic Biomechanical Modelling of a Cetacea's Fin for Controlled Caudal

This video shows the simulation results of a dynamic control model of a cetacean's caudal fin to produce propulsion. The proposed physical model was bio-inspired in a dolphin's extensors caudae medianis and lateralis muscles. Our approach proposes eight biomechanical equivalent caudal extensors muscles that, by combining their linear extensions and constractions, the spine's joints angular moments are controlled to yield the dolphin's swimming motion.

Robot trajectory, control and localization using encoders/vision odometry

The video shows the trajectory of a robotic platform known as Amigobot utilizing its encoders and a video camera for control and localization of the platform as a task assignment for the Robotics class of the Mechatronics program. The mathematical models and control were coded using C/C++.

Diseño de Videojuegos

El presente video muestra simulaciones animadas de algunos ejercicios de clase. Los modelos matemáticos que simulan las siguientes animaciones se codificaron en C/C++ y PLIB en la plataforma Linux.

Upper-limb Exoskeleton Applied to Push Heavy Objects

Simulation of the movement of an artificial upper-limb with an application to push heavy objects. The mechanisms and their kinematic models of each joint were designed together with a complete assembly of the exoskeleton in 3D. Some kinematic equations that model the movement of each joint are illustrated.

Upper-limb Exoskeleton Applied to Push Heavy Objects

This video shows a first approach of the kinematic simulation of the mechanisms of a wheeled robot with an automaton on-board. By deploying only one actuator for driving and another for steering, the automaton part turns its trunk to steer by changing the wheels' lateral speed. A pair of planetary gears and a brake bar allow to decrease wheel speeds by switching between the left-sided and the right-sided wheel to variate the robot's angular velocity. The tasks for drilling (left arm) and screwing (right arm) are synchronized and repetitive, thus the robotic (autonomy) aspects will focus on the navigational control and positioning in the future. The robot's equations are simulated in C++.

Design and Modeling of the Mechanisms of a Rolling Robot and Simulation of its Kinematics

This video shows a simulation about the design of the mechanisms of a wheeled mobile robot with two arms to perform specific automatic tasks (e.g. products labeling). The vehicular mechanism is actuated with two differential drives, and the arms are powered by an underactuated system executing the automatic task. The end-effector has its own motor. The simulation was developed to show some kinematic motions with their models coded in C/C++.

Modelling and Control of an Underactuated Quasi-omnidirectional Hexapod

In this work the design of a hexapod with underactuated mechanisms for driving and steering is proposed. We established a dynamic control law for the robot posture (X,Y position, and orientation) controlled only by three actuators (two differential drives, and one steer for all limbs), unlike conventional redundant models (e.g. 18 actuators three per limb). This video shows the robot's mechanisms simulation and the Klann-based walking limbs.

Upper-limb Exoskeleton to Lift Heavy Objects

This video shows an exoskeleton's mechanism design and their movements for an arm. The proposed design is purposed to help in lifting heavy objects. Through the kinematic models, a 2D computer simulation is yielded. Computer simulation of the mechanisms are developed by using C++ to illustrate the geometry of motion of the planar joints.

Modeling and Simulation of an Automaton Robot Designed for Farming

The following video shows a vehicular robot's mechanical design based on the Leonardo Da Vinci's self-propelled vehicle (1478). In addition, an automaton for planting is placed onboard the vehicle. The automaton is underactuated mechanism that sows while it navigates.

Wheeled Robot with Underactuated Mechanism for Absolute Goal-Direction

This work presents the functional property of an underactuated compass mechanism for a wheeled robot to permanently provide the final destination angle as the global reference used to self-control one drive-steer wheel. The mechanical system commutates between the global compass and a local obstacle-evasion system.

Different approaches are the electronic magnetic compasses that take as global reference the earth's magnetic poles, or a GPS receiver that at least requires two successive readings to determine its actual direction using the geographical azimuth and elevation as the global reference. Either cases require specific models to sense and infer robot's geometry used to plan how to reach a desired goal.

Brain-Robot Interface Classifier based on Partial Derivatives of α-μ Stimuli

This project concerns the development of a Brain-Robot Interface (BRI) to steer a WMR using left and right stimuli. Originally, a physical WMR was deployed, but subsequently it was substituted by a virtual robotic platform.

We proposed a non-conventional algorithm to classify brain signals through a function we called η, which collect hidden patterns obtained from the fusion of different partial derivatives. The partial derivatives are obtained from a set of channels specially chosen for this task. Such channels signals were filtered out with different types of filters, simultaneously, depending on each channel's data.

The frequency domain filters were δ (0.5-3Hz), θ (4-7Hz), α (7-13Hz), μ1 (8-10Hz), μ2 (11-13), and what we call the α-BCI (8-12Hz). The latter is a 4th order Butterworth filter.

Finally, a statistical classifier based on the nearest mean method was developed to recognize left-right stimuli in order to steer the rolling robot.

Design, Modeling and Trajectory Control of an Exoskeleton for Rehabilitation Limbs

This video presents the mechanical design, kinematic modelling and feedback control of a pair of limb exoskeletons purposed for medical rehabilitation.

Stable controlled trajectories to emulate rehabilitation exercises, for arms, and legs are of critical importance. This work approaches the development and use of virtual mechanisms controlled by algorithms, for therapeutic movements in human limbs.

EMG-based feedback was proposed to accurately estimate the limb's angular position while a rehabilitation exercise is carried out.

Measuring 3D Position of a Thermal-source by a Home-made IR-Camera

This class assignment consisted of deducing a non-linear sensing model to infer the 3D position of a high temperature thermal source. The sensor model characterized a low-cost home-made passive IR-camera. It is capable of detecting specific heat-emission regions and measure their 3D Cartesian positions online.

Multi-Robot Parallel Architecture for Industrial Carry-and-Fetch Tasks

This work presents a dynamic multi-threading and multi-core allocation robot architecture. It is based on the home-made SAMURAI robotic operating system. This architecture is based on four types of threads: sense (s), plan (p), act (a) and synchronization tasks (x). The planner is a parallel system that provides routes planning, and autonomous free-collision navigation for a team of mobile robots.

Robot Prototype for Greenhouse Irrigation

A home-made omnidirectional wheeled mobile robot (three omni-wheels) with an RGB camera, an hydraulic water pump and a 4DOF manipulator onboard, was developed for greenhouse irrigation tasks.

Distributed Multiple Heterogeneous Robots Communication and Control

Use of the SAMURAI Operating System to simultaneously control three heterogeneous robotic platforms by using the same object-oriented software interface.

Rolling Robot with Absolute Self-Controlled Direction

This project is a modern design version inspired on the Leonardo Da Vinci's self-propelled cart invention (1495) and the ancient Chinese south-pointing chariot (265 CE).

Self-Reconfigurable Limbs Quadruped Robot

This research shows the design of a quadruped vehicle with asynchronous limb reconfiguration. Such configurations are transformed into wheel, half-wheel, anthropomorphic leg, leg-foot, ape-like arm and so forth.

The purpose of this robot is to overcome navigation over all-terrain.

Pat. Pend.: MX/a/2016/003547

Design of Heron's Automatic Doors Temple

Modern version of the Heron's automatic doors temple.

Instead of steam and fire, an adapted windmill with a mechanical device to invert rotations was implemented.

Design and Simulation of a Reconfigurable Klann-based Quadruped Automaton

This video shows the design and simulation of a quadruped automaton for structures welding. The automaton does specific point welding by deploying two limbs and walks over all terrain.

The automaton shows capacity to reconfigure its gait pattern for locomotion that is obtained by numerical synthesis.

Underactuated Biped Jansen & Hoeckens Mechanism

This video shows the simulation results and real experiments of an under-actuated biped mechanism with hybrid limbs.

The proposed mechanical design is original, but was inspired by the Jansen and Hoeckens linkages, with a special kinematic arrangement to synchronize the biped gait.

Pat. pending: MX/a/2016/003820

Simulation of an Underactuated Quadruped Vehicle

This video illustrates the design and simulation of a mobile automaton for human transportation, inspired in the ancient automata research.

Our vehicle foundation design is an original idea that consists of deploying one rotary actuator (DC motor) to exert two lateral walking differential velocities for navigation. Instead of using several actuators, by means of a diversity of mechanisms, one actuator is demonstrated to be exploited in order to derive eight different walking speeds laterally. Therefore, navigation control is simplified to solely control one independent rotation variable, transmitting motion to four Klann limbs.

Mechanism Design of a Quadruped Automaton

This video shows the design and simulation of the mechanisms motion of a quadruped automaton. The automaton's design deploys three actuators, two for walking (drive-differential control), one actuator is deployed for the automatic tasks of loading (arms-rise and trunk-turn), and the same synchronizes the plank's slope motion for dropping material.

The automaton's limbs are hybrid mechanisms: Jansen + Hoeckens, and poses a special mechanism design to provide the capability to reconfigure pattern gaits.

Parallel Computing for Robotic Tasks

This video depicts some parallel-computing funtionalities of our robotic OS. The three primitives sense-plan-act are organized in multi-thread categories. A special scheduler performs online the following: a)estimates each thread execution priority; b)calculates the computational complexity in real-time; and c) dynamically allocates multiple CPUs cores.

Home-made Underactuated Spherical Flying Robot Prototype: Experimental Stage

This video shows the set of development events of a home-made spherical flying robot prototype. The fundamental nature design of the robot is based on underactuation. No ailerons are included to control directions, but a gyroscopic mechanism with three rings allow full movility. Vertically collinear dual rotors (coaxial mode) change the air mass flow, creating differential pressures since the rotors produce asynchronous induced air velocities. Thus, the inner gyroscopic rings automatically change their tilt and pitch angles due to interaction of the rotors induced forces, gravity, and the inertial effects.

Robot Control and Planning Navigation for Exploration and Heat Sources Search

The following video presents an automated control with a planning system for a mobile robot to find the unknown location of a source of heat. The robot is instrumented with a home-made infrared optical sensor on board to detect the source of heat emissions. An IR sensing model was theoretically formulated based on experimental data that measure the relationship among the temperature, an image of infrared intensity values, and the real distance between the robot and the source of heat.

Therefore, by using the observed distance, a system of non linear equations with general form d^2_t = (x_f-x_t)^2 + (y_f-y_t)^2 is recursively solved. A derivative-based solution is provided on-line using the Newton-Raphson method to search/find the source of heat emissions at the unknown location. The motion planning approach is the fundamental for the motion control that is based on combining trigonometric partial derivatives of repulsive and attractive vector fields. Thus, simultaneously avoiding obstacles, and moving towards the location of the source of heat.

Monocular Visual Odometry

This is an experimental video of a method of visual odometer for mobile robots. It is based on a single sensor vision, and the automatic detection of environmental feature points in one single frame.

However, by detecting feature points in two consecutive image frames along different Cartesian locations, perspective, rotation and scale are changed. Thus, by means of data association of key points produced with some optic flow characteristics, triangulation of such key points are triangulated to compute odometry under natural light conditions.

Knight Automata Mechanism (Type-B)

The Type-B Knight Automata Mechanism is powered by one actuator.

This project is the design, modeling and control of an automata mechanism inspired by Leonardo Da Vinci's work, but with our modern version.

The numerical modeling and kinematic control was developed in C/C++.

Knight Automata Mechanism (Type-A)

The Type-A Knight Automata Mechanism is powered by one actuator.

This project is the design, modeling and control of an automata mechanism inspired by Leonardo Da Vinci's work, but with our modern version.

The numerical modeling and kinematic control was developed in C/C++.

Modeling and Design of a Klann-Based Asynchronous Speed Quadruped Robot

Design of an experimental prototype of a robotic platform built with four limbs based on the Klann linkage mechanism with asynchronous speeds.

Klann Mechanism Based Reconfigurable Walking Robot

By utilizing the proposed novel reconfigurable Klann mechanism, numerous gait patterns are generated. Five gait patterns of interest that validate the feasibility of our approach and considerably extend the capabilities of the original design are identified, analyzed and discussed.

Experiments are performed using simulated and fabricated reconfigurable single leg Klann to validate the mechanism capable of transforming link lengths to generate the identified coupler curves.

Journal Paper:

J.K. Sheba, R.E. Mohan, E.A. Martinez-Garcia, L. Tan-Phuc, Synthesizing Reconfigurable Foot Traces with Klann Mechanism, Robotica, Vol.33, 2015, Cambridge University Press.

Mechanical Design and Kinematic Modelling of a Rolling Automata Mechanism

Self-directed robotic vehicle inspired by the Chinese odometer and the Davinci's propelled car.

Simulation: C/C++ Online visualization: FreeCAD

Simultaneous Navigation and Mapping using RGB-D

In this work, while the robot navigates indoors, an environment map is built online and used to avoid obstacles and to reach different Cartesian goals. The environmental mapping process uses an RGB-D sensor combined with a LIDAR-based SLAM


Two types of maps are yielded, one version is a 3D that contains complete data for the sake of human users. A second map is filtered through spatial discrimination algorithms, where only the sensor data that occupies the robot's height is of interest for navigation plannning.

Simultaneous 3D Mapping and Navigation

Real-time sensing of a Peoplebot navigating through the laboratory.

The compiled data from the various sensors of the Peoplebot are used to make a recreation of the room.

Some samples of the gathered data can be visualized with SLAM and Color point cloud.

Robotic Vision: Multiple Visual Objects Detection Under Natural Light Conditions

Undergraduate course of Robotics, class assignment on sensing models. Real-time vision-based roadway multi-object detection and tracking. Laboratorio de Robotica, Institute of Engineering and Technology, UACJ. Jan-May 2014.

Non-linear Robot Motion Planning Using DCVG

In this study, a novel approach to robots navigation/planning is presented by using real electric directional derivatives. Automatic search/detection of pipeline flaws by using the direct current volt- age gradient (DCVG) technique is firstly applied as gradient-based fields for wheeled robot motion control. An algebraic solution for a set of non-linear equations is given, and with such solution, accelerative directional fields are yielded as a search/detection planning task.

The proposed set of differential equations are combined with inverse/forward kinematic constraints of non- holonomic mobile robots to make use of the soil equipotential signals, as automatic leading of the robot up to the pipeline flaw. Analytical modeling is proposed, and numerical results are presented to prove the feasibility of the proposed formulation scheme.

Research paper available at:

Robotization of a Hovercraft (Testing)

First experimental tests performed measuring trajectories from a traveled path.

SAMURAI Meta Operating System: Commands

Robotic arm controlled by our Meta-Operating System SAMURAI (Sistema de Arquitecturas de Múltiples Robots Autónomos Integrados) using keyboard-input commands.

Brain-Robot Interface Teleoperation

Teleoperation of a mobile robot with a Brain-Robot Interface. The basis of this experiment is detecting P300 signals yielded from the parietal lobe with only three electrodes placed on the cerebral cortex - regions C3,C2 and C4 (according to 10-20 system).

The human-user is using his imagination focused on the left side movement, right side movement or moving forward (highlighted by the drawn arrow on hand). The mobile robot responds to motor actions given by a statistical classifier that analyzes the sets of EEG data. Then; through a peer-to-peer wireless communication, the robot is teleoperated.

Real-time visual recognition based on multi-class statistical classification (Mechatronics 8th Semester)

A set of 9 different objects are recognized and classified instantly by using a very low cost usb camera. A computer vision based multidimensional space of features is built, and multiple statistical parameters are computed; a nearest mean multi-classifier discriminates the type of objects. Coded in C/C++ under Linux.

Mapping (Mechatronics 8th Semester)

Initial tests of an Multi-Robot, Asynchronous and Singular Robot Global Mapping using Amigobots by compiling the gathered data from their sonar sensors and plotting the data from each one.

Hercules: Outdoors 2D Mapping

Demonstration of the data obtained plotted in 2D from a set path of the 4-wheeled platform "Hercules" outside the laboratory.


The Omnibot moves without need to rotate for the desired angle, demonstrating the mathematical algorithm to move in the desired way.

Obstacle avoidance

Experiment with a Multi-Robot system and social forces.

This video shows the reflection of a robot avoiding crash with all obstacles, including other robots.

Brain-Computer Interfacing

Demonstration of real brain waves stimulation in an oscilloscope when moving the left leg.

Brain Response

Experiment with a BCI (Brain-Computer Interface). The arm movement results in a particular wave form shown in the oscilloscope.

Semi-spherical Sensor

Parallel video capture of a set of 4 cameras installed in a semi-spherical geometry to provide an aproximated range of vision of 180 degrees.

Wii-Robot Interface

Hacked Nintendo® Wii™ controller operates a robotic platform.

It uses the built-in acceleromer inside the Wiimote to control the platform's angle by sending a signal to the robot through bluetooth communication.

Harris-Affine Region Detection

Harris affine region detection and extraction of a dynamic and uncontrolled environment.

Image Matching and Comparison

Image capture from a webcam installed in a robotic platform following a set route. The images are compared and matched in real-time.

Local Newspaper Note

Technology used to facilitate the life of mankind.